Violence against women, sexual diversities and/or for gender reasons
The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), adopted in 1979, is the first international instrument referring exclusively to women's rights. In 1992, through Recommendation 19, the CEDAW Committee included as part of the Convention the notion of violence against women as a derivation of the concept of discrimination, on the understanding that violence against women constitutes a form of gender-based discrimination and that discrimination is one of the main causes of such violence.
The Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, adopted in 1993, states that "violence against women constitutes a violation of human rights", defining it as "any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life". The law also recognizes that this can be physical, sexual or psychological and committed by the family, the community or by state agents (or with their collaboration).
At the regional level, in 1994 the Inter-American Convention on the Prevention, Punishment and Eradication of Violence Against Women, also known as the "Belem Do Pará Convention" was passed, which expressly recognizes the right of women to live a life free of violence.
In 2003, the Maputo Protocol on the Rights of Women in Africa, annexed to the African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights, was issued and in 2011 the Council of Europe Convention on preventing and combating violence against women and domestic violence (Istanbul Convention) was passed.
It is worth mentioning that in 2006 the United Nations approved the "Principles on the Application of International Human Rights Law in relation to Sexual Orientation and Gender Identity" (Yogyakarta Principles). This document is not a legally binding instrument, but it establishes legal standards to guide the actions of States and other agents in the prevention and eradication of violence, abuse and systematic discrimination suffered by LGBTI+ people.