On April 19, the American Indian Day is celebrated in some American countries, in commemoration of the Indigenous Congress held between April 14 and 24, 1940 in the city of Patzcuaro, Michoacan, Mexico. That Congress meant a transformation of continental indigenous politics, opening the debate and promoting a reflection on the diversity of marginalization situations that American indigenous peoples were experiencing, beyond their national nuances, since until the middle of the 20th century in practice there was a generalized exclusion of the identity of the indigenous population in many American States.

In any case, “the current cultural diversity, as an explanatory and descriptive framework of the social world, represents a new paradigm that surpasses the one started with the aforementioned Indigenous Congress. This new look links the indigenous realities and the States, no longer from welfare perspectives, but on the conception of active subjects possessing rights to exercise ”, as explained by the Program on Cultural Diversity of  Argentina’s General Defender of the Nation in reference to this commemoration.

Although in Argentina Decree No. 7550/1945 instituted the day with that name, at present we must take into account indigenous realities in collective terms and with gender perspectives. It is also important to note that it was only in 1994 that the pre-existence of native peoples, the right and respect for their identity, the right to intercultural education and the recognition of the legal status of their communities were recognized in the National Constitution.